Estudio de suelos con fines de nutrición y riego en los cultivos Caña de Azucar (saccharum officinarum) y hule (hevea brasiliensis) en Finca el Rosario, Cuyotenango, Suchitepéquez.

Summary The next research it was done in finca “El Rosario” that is located in Cuyotenango, Suchitepéquez. This research paper came from the concern of the finca’s administration, because of the last results of the performance in the sugar cane’s cultivation that were too slow. The best production...

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Main Author: González Robles, Bruno Rodrigo
Format: Tesis
Language: Español
Published: 2016
Subjects:
Online Access: http://www.repositorio.usac.edu.gt/6138/
http://www.repositorio.usac.edu.gt/6138/1/Trabajo%20de%20graduaci%C3%B3n%20Fca.%20El%20Rosario.pdf
Summary: Summary The next research it was done in finca “El Rosario” that is located in Cuyotenango, Suchitepéquez. This research paper came from the concern of the finca’s administration, because of the last results of the performance in the sugar cane’s cultivation that were too slow. The best production are found in 90 ton/Ha and the lowest in 70 ton/Ha; it is considered as a low performance 100 ton/Ha (Cencigaña) while in the rubber planting there’s no uniform stems (from 11 to 17 cm), besides of other judgements that were taken of the diagnose completed during the Professional Supervised of Exercise Practice. It was considered to realize a ground study, because it allows to know its potential so we can obtain the wanted results, in a way that is efficient and appropriate. Providing technical advice that has been absent of this place. Because there wasn’t a semi-detailed ground study in the property, we couldn´t take in consideration the physical and chemical characteristics of it. Therefore, this information didn’t exist to have an irrigation design and a nutritional management of the rubber planting (Hevea brasiliensis) and sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum). Because of the previously mentioned reasons, there was a ground division in a semi-detailed level (1:20,000) that at the end generated a publication map at a scale of (1:10,000) and presenting physical and chemical characteristics, ground fertility levels and irrigation classification. In order to do this research, initially it was scanned the area of study, and a ground’s physical study it was realized also, so it could be determined the easy identification parameters in the field; like the texture, structure, color and effective deepness, stoniness, are some that could be mentioned and that was essential to classify the grounds with uniform characteristics and set sampling points, with help of a Global Positioning System (GPS) to locate the correct place where the ground samples where subtracted and sent to the “Ing. Salvador Castillo Orellana” laboratory, from the Agronomy Faculty of the San Carlos de Guatemala University. The results that were obtained proved that the surface horizons possess a loose grain structure, a black coloration on the rubber planting area, dark gray and dark brown for the sugar cane planting. The lower horizons possess a massive structure and a dark brown color in the rubber planting, while that in the sugar cane there were obtained brown and dark yellow-brown coloration. For the sugar cane planting the textures vary from plain to clay plain to clay. In the rubber planting it was sandy-plain to clay. Those are deep grounds, with a sewer system from moderated to slow. Erosion from mild to moderate with shaped grooves. The relief is plain to smooth undulated. Among the chemical ground characteristics, it was obtained a pH within 6.5 to 7.1. They are poor grounds on Phosphorus and Potassium, for the sugar cane planting. For the rubber planting, it was obtained a pH within 6.3 to 6.5; poor grounds on Phosphorus but with an appropriate level of Potassium in the surface horizons but deficient in the lower horizons. Taking in consideration the previous results, we classified the grounds for irrigation purposes in Class II; which present characteristics such as arable grounds, convenience to sugar cane planting’s irrigation, light limited stoniness, slopes of 0 t 4%, undulated to smooth relief and low to moderate erosion, this is based on what was indicated by the United States Bureau of Reclamation (U.S.B.R.). For the nutritional management of sugar cane planting the recommended dose to apply is 15quintal/Ha of diammonium phosphate (DAP) and 4 quintals of Potassium Nitrate (K20), for the rubber planting only is required to apply 3.8 pound/tree of diammonium phosphate. Regarding the irrigation water management there were two obtained classifications of which the “A” classification belongs to the Northeast and South area, and of which has a ground with a plain-clay texture, this is equivalent to 61.70% which represents 29Ha, there was obtained a basic infiltration of 8.1 mm/hr. The “B” classification it belongs to the Northeast area, it has a plain texture ground in an area of 18Ha, this belongs to the 38.30% and it was obtained a basic infiltration of 13mm/hr.