Seed technology and production of improved maize varieties from INIFAP without PRONASE.
The NationalInstitute of Research on Forestry, Agriculture, and Livestock(INIFAP) of Mexico, with other preceding institutions havereleased 221 hybrids and developed varieties during 62 years.This time INIFAP has worked in maize plant breeding. Thegenotypes had specific adaptation to different envir...
|Main Authors:||Espinosa Calderón, Alejandro, Sierra Macías, Mauro, Gómez Montiel, Noel|
Universidad de Costa Rica
The NationalInstitute of Research on Forestry, Agriculture, and Livestock(INIFAP) of Mexico, with other preceding institutions havereleased 221 hybrids and developed varieties during 62 years.This time INIFAP has worked in maize plant breeding. Thegenotypes had specific adaptation to different environmentalconditions. The materials were maize double-crossed andOpen Pollinated Varieties (OPV). Both varieties wererecommended to cover the largest possible areas. TheNational Seed Producing Enterprise (Productora Nacional deSemillas, PRONASE); was founded in 1961. The Seed Lawsupport PRONASE. Under the new seed law, passed in 1961,several regulatory entities were established to control cropresearch and seed certification, production and marketing.Officially, all research was controlled by the Ministry ofAgriculture. The creation of PRONASE, with its mandate toproduce and distribute commercial seed of all varietiesdeveloped by INIFAP, created a quasi-monopoly in the seedindustry, which limited and delayed the private sector’sparticipation in research and seed production. Eventhough,privatisation substantially changed the public and privatesector participation in maize seed production and sale. TheMexican seed industries are relatively limited by theparticipation of NGOs and cooperatives in maize seedproduction and marketing. Cooperatives and NGOs produceand market seed, especially of improved OPVs. Publicorganisations have dismissed almost completely from seedproduction and marketing. Multinational and several nationalcompanies dominate the industry by supporting strongbreeding programs. However, the use of certified seed issmall (26% to 33%). The INIFAP has released improved andnew varieties (30), all of them with good agronomiccharacteristics for the different regions of Mexico. INIFAPhas Seed Technology and Seed production. It is necessary toimprove some strategies to supply seed. The farmers canestablish small local seed enterprises.