Prolonged development of the middle ear in Rhinella horribilis

Despite the benefit of the tympanic middle ear to airborne hearing sensitivity, anurans range in how soon they develop functional middle ears after transitioning to life on land. Previous evi- dence suggested that bufonids had particularly slow middle ear developmental rates, but precise timelines h...

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Main Authors: Womack, Molly C., Stynoski, Jennifer Lynn, Voyles, Meredith K., Coloma Román, Luis A., Hoke, Kim L.
Format: Artículo
Language: Inglés
Published: 2019
Subjects:
Online Access: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/jmor.20886
http://hdl.handle.net/10669/76937
Summary: Despite the benefit of the tympanic middle ear to airborne hearing sensitivity, anurans range in how soon they develop functional middle ears after transitioning to life on land. Previous evi- dence suggested that bufonids had particularly slow middle ear developmental rates, but precise timelines have not yet been published for this family. Here, we provide the first age-verified middle ear development timeline for a true toad species (family Bufonidae). We find that although middle ear development begins during metamorphosis in Rhinella horribilis, the middle ear remains incomplete 15 weeks after the transition from aquatic tadpole to land-dwelling toadlet. Using this new middle ear timeline, we discuss commonalities and differences in middle ear development among bufonids, as well as among Anura.