Prevalence of gingivitis and calculus in 12-year-old Puerto Ricans: a cross-sectional study
Background: Gingivitis is a common oral health problem. Untreated gingivitis may progress to periodontitis, a common cause of tooth loss. The prevalence of gingivitis and calculus among Puerto Rican children is unknown. Understanding this prevalence can support early public health preventative str...
|Main Authors:||El?as Boneta, Augusto R., Ram?rez Chan, Karol Gabriela, Rivas Tumanyan, Sona, Murillo Arocho, Margarita, Toro Arrivillaga, Milagros J.|
Background: Gingivitis is a common oral health problem. Untreated gingivitis may progress to periodontitis, a
common cause of tooth loss. The prevalence of gingivitis and calculus among Puerto Rican children is unknown.
Understanding this prevalence can support early public health preventative strategies. This study aims to estimate
the prevalence of gingivitis and calculus among 12-year-old Puerto Ricans by health region and to explore
differences in distribution by school type (proxy for socio-economic status) and gender.
Methods: A probability-based sample of 113 schools was selected proportional to enrollment size and stratified by
health region, school type, and gender. Two trained examiners evaluated the presence of gingivitis and both
supragingival and subgingival dental calculus. Gingivitis was defined as the presence of gingival bleeding upon
gentle probing (BOP) in at least one site, and the extent of the problem was classified according to the percentage
of teeth whose gingiva presented BOP (limited: 25?49% of the teeth tested; extensive: >50% of teeth tested).
Logistic and linear regression models, adjusted for health regions, were used to compare gingivitis and calculus
prevalence and extent between genders and school types.
Results: Gingivitis was found in 80.41% of the 1586 children evaluated. Urban-public schoolchildren had a slightly
higher prevalence (83.24%) compared to private (79.15%, p = 0.16); those in rural-public (77.59%) and private
schools had similar prevalence (p = 0.15). Extensive gingivitis was present in 60.81% of all children. The mean
percentage of sites presenting BOP (BOP%) was 17.79%. Rural and urban public schoolchildren presented
significantly higher BOP% compared to children from private schools (p = 0.0005, p = 0.002, respectively). Dental
calculus was detected in 61.59% of the sample, boys presenting significantly higher (p = 0.005) total and
supragingival calculus. Rural-public schoolchildren had a significantly higher prevalence of subgingival calculus
compared to private schoolchildren (p = 0.02).
Conclusions: Gingivitis prevalence is higher among 12-year-old Puerto Ricans compared to data reported for U.S.
adolescents. Public schoolchildren presented significantly higher BOP% sites compared to private schoolchildren.
Boys presented a significantly higher total and supragingival calculus prevalence than girls. Oral health disparities
related to gender and school type were identified by this study. Studies exploring the reasons for these disparities