Evaluation of predictive maps for Aedes aegypti larval habitats in two urban areas of Costa Rica
The abundance of Aedes aegypti can be associated with urban structure and tree cover, which conceals and protects containers. The purpose of this study was to create and evaluate predictive maps for Ae. Aegypti larval habitats in Puntarenas and Carpio, two very different urban environments in Costa...
|Main Authors:||Troyo Rodríguez, Adriana, Calderón Arguedas, Ólger, Avendaño López, Adrián, Mora Pineda, Geovanny, Beier, John C., Fuller, Douglas O.|
|Format:||Objeto de conferencia|
The abundance of Aedes aegypti can be associated with urban structure and tree cover, which conceals and protects containers. The purpose of this study was to create and evaluate predictive maps for Ae. Aegypti larval habitats in Puntarenas and Carpio, two very different urban environments in Costa Rica. Linear regression models for number of mosquito larval habitats had been developed for Puntarenas, and they showed a significant association with tree cover when corrected by the
number of locations evaluated (R2 = 0.650, p<0.001). Land cover maps were created from Quickbird satellite imagery of both sites. Data was extracted from 50 by 50 m cells, and parameters from the model were used to create predictive maps by determining the expected number of Ae. aegypti positive larval habitats in all cells that cover the urban areas.
To evaluate maps, cells were randomly selected, and entomological evaluations were performed. Four categories were created for the number of larval habitats per cell: low (0-1), medium (2-3), high (4-5), and very high (6 or more). For both sites, the expected number of wet containers in sample cells fell within the 95% confidence interval of predicted values.
In Puntarenas, 382 wet containers were identified, container index was 22.5% and Breteau index 43.7. Expected and observed categories of Ae. aegypti larval habitats per cell in Greater Puntarenas were significantly correlated (p=0,037). Only 32.5% of cells harbored the exact number of expected habitats, 74% contained the expected number +/- 2 habitats, and only 16% underestimated total larval habitats. In Carpio, 693 wet containers were identified, container index was 11.4% and Breteau Index 24.7. Expected and observed categories of Ae. aegypti positive habitats per cell were not significantly correlated in Carpio. Only 50% of cells contained the expected number +/- 2 habitats, and 29% underestimated the total observed. The most frequent Ae. aegypti larval habitats in Puntarenas included outdoor containers and miscellaneous objects, while larval habitats in Carpio were commonly human-filled, such as drums and buckets. These maps and models may be considered adequate for areas like Puntarenas, whereas they do not seem to apply for Carpio. Tree cover may provide useful information in sites where Ae. aegypti larval habitats include mostly outdoor rain-filled containers, as opposed to sites where containers are greatly affected by the need for water storage.