Scarce detection of mobile erm genes associated with tetQ in Bacteroides and Parabacteroides from Costa Rica
The frequency of finding of clindamycin-resistant anaerobic bacteria in clinical samples has doubled from 2008 to 2010 in Costa Rica. To determine whether this increase is due to dissemination of erm genes aided by tetQ elements, we analyzed 100 isolates of Bacteroides or Parabacteroides from a regi...
|Main Authors:||Quesada Gómez, Carlos, Rodríguez Cavallini, Evelyn, Rodríguez Sánchez, César|
The frequency of finding of clindamycin-resistant anaerobic bacteria in clinical samples has doubled from 2008 to 2010 in Costa Rica. To determine whether this increase is due to dissemination of erm genes aided by tetQ elements, we analyzed 100 isolates of Bacteroides or Parabacteroides from a regional hospital, a national hospital, and the community. Antimicrobial susceptibilities were recorded with a broth micro-dilution method and erm genes were detected by PCR and Southern blotting. In addition, plasmid isolation and mating experiments were performed to clarify the location and mobility of the detected erm genes. Resistance to clindamycin was by far more frequent in the regional hospital (72%) than in the national hospital (29%) and the community (26%). Resistance to tetracycline was even more common, with the community (85%) outweighing the hospitals (71–72%). While MIC of clindamycin were higher in the hospitals than in the community (P < 0.05), the opposite was seen for tetracycline (P < 0.0001). Of the sought-after genes, only ermG (n = 2), ermA (n = 1), and ermF (n = 1) were detected in the hospitals and ermF in the community (n = 2). In opposition to the low frequency of finding of erm genes, 71% of the isolates were positive for tetQ. None of the detected genes were encoded on plasmids. Only three isolates from the hospitals transferred their erm genes laterally. By contrast, 13 hospital isolates and two community isolates transferred tetQ. Despite the widespread finding of tetracycline-resistant tetQ-positive bacteria, mobile erm genes were rare in our bacterial collection. We conclude that the detected erm genes are likely not included in typical conjugative transposons of Bacteroides and Parabacteroides.