Clay minerals identified in soils of Costa Rica from 1931 to 2014: I. History, methods of analyses, and mayor clay types found in volcanic ash derived soils

Findings in a total of 84 research papers identifying clay minerals on 520 soil samples of Costa Rica are summarized. This review emphasizes on the clay minerals described in the topsoil samples, although clay minerals in the B horizons are also discussed when they are different to predominant miner...

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Main Authors: Alvarado Hernández, Alfredo, Mata Chinchilla, Rafael, Chinchilla, Miguel
Format: Artículo
Language: Español
Published: 2015
Subjects:
Online Access: http://revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/agrocost/article/view/15160
http://hdl.handle.net/10669/13986
Summary: Findings in a total of 84 research papers identifying clay minerals on 520 soil samples of Costa Rica are summarized. This review emphasizes on the clay minerals described in the topsoil samples, although clay minerals in the B horizons are also discussed when they are different to predominant mineralogy in the topsoil. Sites where soil clays information is available were geo-referenced, to observe their geographical distribution. In general most of the country possesses soil clays identified, except for the Nicoya Peninsula, the Northern Zone, and the Eastern Talamanca Range. Clay mineralogy suites (“predominant clay groups”) were grouped as: (1) vitrous-amorphous-halloysitic (Andisols and other soils with andic properties; (2) smectites and interstratified clays (Vertisols and other soils with vertic properties); (3) oxides- hidroxides-oxihidroxides-kaolinite-gibbsite (Alfisols, Ultisols and Oxisols); Plus a large area of soils with mixed clay mineralogy, found in places with little or no development (Entisols and Inceptisols). The soil clay genesis of the main clay types in the country is discussed when enough information was available.